NAFTA has three primary dispute resolution mechanisms. Chapter 20 is the settlement mechanism for countries. It is often considered the least controversial of the three mechanisms, and has been maintained in its original form from NAFTA to the USMCA. In such cases, complaints filed by USMCA Member States against the duration of the contract would be violated.  In Chapter 19, the justifications for anti-dumping or countervailing duties are managed. Without Chapter 19, the avenue of recourse for the management of these policies would be through the national legal system. Chapter 19 provides that an USMCA body hears the case and acts as an international commercial tribunal to arbitrate the dispute.  The Trump administration has attempted to remove Chapter 19 of the new USMCA text, which until now existed in the agreement. Union leaders are preparing a list of work files that could put them in the provisions of the new dispute settlement agreement, including that of Mexican lawyer Susana Prieto Terrazas, who was arrested while trying to create an independent union. But it remains to be seen what kind of sanction the independent bodies responsible for reviewing these cases could possibly impose. The labour chapter obliges the parties to adopt and maintain labour rights in laws and practices recognized by the International Labour Organization, to effectively enforce their labour laws and not to renounce or revoke their labour laws. The three-nation pact, reached after more than two years of negotiations, aimed to change Mexico`s labour rules to ensure workers have the freedom to form unions and negotiate for better wages. But these changes continue to be made through the Mexican legal system, which is threatened by powerful companies and politicians.
American workers warn that the protection of workers – which Democrats see as a model agreement and who was largely responsible for their support – could still be shaken. Under the leadership of President Donald J. Trump, the United States renegotiated the North American Free Trade Agreement and replaced it with an updated and balanced agreement that works much better for North America, the U.S.-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA), which came into effect on July 1, 2020. The USMCA is a mutually beneficial benefit to workers, farmers, farmers and businesses in North America. The agreement creates more balanced and reciprocal trade that supports high-paying jobs for Americans and cultivates the North American economy.